USDA Forest ServiceSkip navigational links    
 Pacific Southwest Research Station
 Pacific Southwest
Research Station
 About Us
 Contact Us
 Publications & Products

Western San Bernardino Mountains

10 July 2004

23 January 2004

5 November 2003

18 September 2003

27 May 2003

27 April 2003

25 February 2003

3 December 2002

12 November 2002

20 July 2001


Pacific Southwest Research Station
800 Buchanan Street
West Annex Building
Albany, CA 94710-0011

(510) 559-6300

 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.

Fire Science

Forest mortality survey


Western San Bernardino Mountains
12 November 2002

As viewed by the FireMapper™ system
in reflected red, near-InfraRed and thermal-InfraRed light

Images were collected from the PSW Airborne Sciences Aircraft flying over the area near Lake Arrowhead.
The enlarged JPEG images have 1.5-meter resolution.

The forests in the San Bernardino Mountains and the
Peninsular Ranges are seriously drought stressed. In addition, some have diseases (dwarf mistletoe, annosus root disease) which also cause severe stress. Stressed trees can't produce enough resin to protect against pathogens. Examples of these include the California flatheaded borer, mountain pine beetle, red turpentine beetle, Jeffrey-pine beetle and western pine bark beetle. The fir engraver attacks fir trees while the Ips beetle is a scavenger that attacks the tops of trees, along with slash and seriously distressed trees.
Trees in the San Bernardinos are subject to drought, air pollution, and complexes of pests, not just beetles. Deciduous species are affected the same as the coniferous species; black oaks there are suffering from drought stress and also defoliation by the fruit-tree leafroller.

(Entomologist Dr. Laura Merrill, personal communication)

More information on Insects and Forest Diseases



Location Map:

Shaded relief map of the Silverwood Lake, Lake Arrowhead, Butler Peak, San Bernardino N., Harrison Mountain, and Keller Peak quadrangles.
The color overlay shows the area of processed imagery.

Click on the image above to view a larger JPEG image


Forest Imagery

In the following false-color images healthy vegetation appears green and recently killed conifers appear yellow-brown. (This RGB image shows reflected red light at 650 nm in red, reflected NIR at 850 nm in green, and thermal IR at 10.5 um in blue.)


Image 1:
Image mosaic from Lake Arrowhead.

This mosaic was created from data acquired 12 November 2002 and includes Image 2.

Click on the image above to view a larger Zoomify (JPEG) image
(opens a new browser window)
Maximum resolution is 1.5 meters.


Image 2:
Urban forest of the North Shore area near North Bay of Lake Arrowhead. This RGB image was acquired at 1:53 pm, 12 November 2002.


Click on the image above to view a larger JPEG image


Image 2a:
Topographic view from the southeast of Image 2.

Click on the image above to view a larger JPEG image



FireMapper™ Specifications: Instrument

FireMapper™ References: Publications

FireMapper™ Tools image analysis software ftp downloads page

For Further Information: contact Dr. Philip J. Riggan


FireMapper™ has been developed through a Research Joint Venture with Space Instruments, Inc., and support from the National Fire Plan, Forest Service International Programs, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Joint Fire Sciences Program, and the U.S. Agency for International Development.

Disclaimer: Trade names, commercial products, and enterprises are mentioned solely for information. No endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is implied.

Disclaimers | Privacy Policy

 Last Modified: 2007-02-20