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Western San Bernardino Mountains

10 July 2004

23 January 2004

5 November 2003

18 September 2003

27 May 2003

27 April 2003

25 February 2003

3 December 2002

12 November 2002

20 July 2001


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Pacific Southwest Research Station
800 Buchanan Street
West Annex Building
Albany, CA 94710-0011

(510) 559-6300

 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.
 Piper Navajo remote sensing aircraft

Fire Science

Wildfire Monitoring and Prediction
Fire Imaging


Vegetation mortality survey,
San Bernardino National Forest
18 September 2003

As viewed by the FireMapper™ system
in reflected red, near-IR, and thermal IR frequencies

Images were collected from the PSW Airborne Sciences Aircraft flying over the area near Lake Arrowhead.

The forests in the San Bernardino Mountains and the
Peninsular Ranges are seriously drought stressed. In addition, some have diseases (dwarf mistletoe, annosus root disease) which also cause severe stress. Stressed trees can't produce enough resin to protect against pathogens. Examples of these include the California flatheaded borer, mountain pine beetle, red turpentine beetle, Jeffrey-pine beetle and western pine bark beetle. The fir engraver attacks fir trees while the Ips beetle is a scavenger that attacks the tops of trees, along with slash and seriously distressed trees.
Trees in the San Bernardinos are subject to drought, air pollution, and complexes of pests, not just beetles. Deciduous species are affected the same as the coniferous species; black oaks there are suffering from drought stress and also defoliation by the fruit-tree leafroller.

(Entomologist Dr. Laura Merrill, personal communication)





Location Map:

Shaded relief map of the Cajon, Silverwood Lake, Lake Arrowhead, Butler Peak, Devore, North San Bernardino, Hamilton Mountain and Keller Peak area. Color overlays show area of processed imagery.

Click on the image above to view a larger JPEG image in a new browser window




Image 1:

Mosaic of images from flight over Silverwood Lake, Crestline, Lake Arrowhead and Green Valley Lake.

Click on the image above to view a larger JPEG image in a new browser window at full resolution


Healthy vegetation is bright green; stressed or dying vegetation is yellow-brown in this false-color depiction.

(This RGB image shows reflected red light at 650 nm in red, reflected NIR at 850 nm in green, and thermal IR at 10.5 um in blue. The blue band has been inverted, so that the colder areas are brighter blue.)





Archives of past fires: 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001

Forest mapping: 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001


FireMapper™ Specifications: Instrument

FireMapper™ References: Publications

FireMapper™ Tools- image analysis software: ftp downloads page

For Further Information: contact Dr. Philip J. Riggan

FireMapper™ has been developed through a Research Joint Venture with Space Instruments, Inc., and support from the National Fire Plan, Forest Service International Programs, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Joint Fire Sciences Program, and the U.S. Agency for International Development.

Disclaimer: Trade names, commercial products, and enterprises are mentioned solely for information. No endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is implied.

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 Last Modified: 2005-06-13